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Джепбарова Лачын

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Место жительства: г.Балашов.

Место учебы: Саратовский национальный исследовательский государственный университет имени Н.Г.Чернышевского, Балашовский филиал, педагогическое образование, филологический факультет,иностранный язык.

Профессиональные интересы:нравственное воспитание детей, саморазвитие,пополнение словарного запаса, обучение английскому языку.

Хобби: иностранный язык, спорт, чтение, вязание, психология,

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Шаблон:About Шаблон:Pp-semi-indef Шаблон:Use dmy dates Шаблон:Use British English Шаблон:Infobox person

William Shakespeare (Шаблон:IPAc-en; 26 April 1564 (baptised) – 23 April 1616)Шаблон:Efn was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon".Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Efn His extant works, including collaborations, consist of approximately 39 plays,Шаблон:Efn 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems and a few other verses, some of uncertain authorship. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright.Шаблон:Sfn

Shakespeare was born and brought up in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had three children: Susanna and twins Hamnet and Judith. Some time between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London as an actor, writer, and part-owner of a playing company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men, later known as the King's Men. At age 49 around 1613, he appears to have retired to Stratford, where he died three years later. Few records of Shakespeare's private life survive, which has stimulated considerable speculation about such matters as his physical appearance, sexuality, religious beliefs and whether the works attributed to him were written by others.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn These speculations are often criticized for failing to point out the fact that few records survive of most commoners of his period.

Shakespeare produced most of his known work between 1589 and 1613.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:SfnШаблон:Efn His early plays were primarily comedies and histories, which are regarded as some of the best work ever produced in these genres. He then wrote mainly tragedies until about 1608, including Hamlet, Othello, King Lear and Macbeth, considered some of the finest works in the English language.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn In his last phase, he wrote tragicomedies, also known as romances and collaborated with other playwrights.

Many of his plays were published in editions of varying quality and accuracy during his lifetime. However, in 1623 John Heminges and Henry Condell, two friends and fellow actors of Shakespeare, published a more definitive text known as the First Folio, a posthumous collected edition of his dramatic works that included all but two of the plays now recognised as Shakespeare's.Шаблон:Sfn It was prefaced with a poem by Ben Jonson, in which Shakespeare is hailed, presciently, as "not of an age, but for all time".Шаблон:Sfn

In the 20th and 21st centuries, his works have been repeatedly adapted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship and performance. His plays remain highly popular and are constantly studied, performed, and reinterpreted in diverse cultural and political contexts throughout the world.

Life

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Early life

William Shakespeare was the son of John Shakespeare, an alderman and a successful glover originally from Snitterfield, and Mary Arden, the daughter of an affluent landowning farmer.Шаблон:Sfn He was born in Stratford-upon-Avon and baptised there on 26 April 1564. His actual date of birth remains unknown, but is traditionally observed on 23 April, Saint George's Day.Шаблон:Sfn This date, which can be traced back to an 18th-century scholar's mistake, has proved appealing to biographers because Shakespeare died on 23 April 1616.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn He was the third child of eight and the eldest surviving son.Шаблон:Sfn

John Shakespeare's house, believed to be Shakespeare's birthplace, in Stratford-upon-Avon

Although no attendance records for the period survive, most biographers agree that Shakespeare was probably educated at the King's New School in Stratford,Шаблон:SfnШаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn a free school chartered in 1553,Шаблон:Sfn about a quarter-mile (400 m) from his home. Grammar schools varied in quality during the Elizabethan era, but grammar school curricula were largely similar: the basic Latin text was standardised by royal decree,Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn and the school would have provided an intensive education in grammar based upon Latin classical authors.Шаблон:Sfn

At the age of 18, Shakespeare married 26-year-old Anne Hathaway. The consistory court of the Diocese of Worcester issued a marriage licence on 27 November 1582. The next day, two of Hathaway's neighbours posted bonds guaranteeing that no lawful claims impeded the marriage.Шаблон:Sfn The ceremony may have been arranged in some haste since the Worcester chancellor allowed the marriage banns to be read once instead of the usual three times,Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn and six months after the marriage Anne gave birth to a daughter, Susanna, baptised 26 May 1583.Шаблон:Sfn Twins, son Hamnet and daughter Judith, followed almost two years later and were baptised 2 February 1585.Шаблон:Sfn Hamnet died of unknown causes at the age of 11 and was buried 11 August 1596.Шаблон:Sfn

Shakespeare's coat of arms, as it appears on the rough draft of the application to grant a coat-of-arms to John Shakespeare. It features a spear as a pun on the family name.Шаблон:Efn

After the birth of the twins, Shakespeare left few historical traces until he is mentioned as part of the London theatre scene in 1592. The exception is the appearance of his name in the "complaints bill" of a law case before the Queen's Bench court at Westminster dated Michaelmas Term 1588 and 9 October 1589.Шаблон:Sfn Scholars refer to the years between 1585 and 1592 as Shakespeare's "lost years".Шаблон:Sfn Biographers attempting to account for this period have reported many apocryphal stories. Nicholas Rowe, Shakespeare's first biographer, recounted a Stratford legend that Shakespeare fled the town for London to escape prosecution for deer poaching in the estate of local squire Thomas Lucy. Shakespeare is also supposed to have taken his revenge on Lucy by writing a scurrilous ballad about him.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn Another 18th-century story has Shakespeare starting his theatrical career minding the horses of theatre patrons in London.Шаблон:Sfn John Aubrey reported that Shakespeare had been a country schoolmaster.Шаблон:Sfn Some 20th-century scholars have suggested that Shakespeare may have been employed as a schoolmaster by Alexander Hoghton of Lancashire, a Catholic landowner who named a certain "William Shakeshafte" in his will.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn Little evidence substantiates such stories other than hearsay collected after his death, and Shakeshafte was a common name in the Lancashire area.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn

London and theatrical career

It is not known definitively when Shakespeare began writing, but contemporary allusions and records of performances show that several of his plays were on the London stage by 1592.Шаблон:Sfn By then, he was sufficiently known in London to be attacked in print by the playwright Robert Greene in his Groats-Worth of Wit:

... there is an upstart Crow, beautified with our feathers, that with his Tiger's heart wrapped in a Player's hide, supposes he is as well able to bombast out a blank verse as the best of you: and being an absolute Johannes factotum, is in his own conceit the only Shake-scene in a country.Шаблон:Sfn

Scholars differ on the exact meaning of Greene's words,Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn but most agree that Greene was accusing Shakespeare of reaching above his rank in trying to match such university-educated writers as Christopher Marlowe, Thomas Nashe, and Greene himself (the so-called "university wits").Шаблон:Sfn The italicised phrase parodying the line "Oh, tiger's heart wrapped in a woman's hide" from Shakespeare's Henry VI, Part 3, along with the pun "Shake-scene", clearly identify Shakespeare as Greene's target. As used here, Johannes Factotum ("Jack of all trades") refers to a second-rate tinkerer with the work of others, rather than the more common "universal genius".Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn

Greene's attack is the earliest surviving mention of Shakespeare's work in the theatre. Biographers suggest that his career may have begun any time from the mid-1580s to just before Greene's remarks.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn After 1594, Shakespeare's plays were performed only by the Lord Chamberlain's Men, a company owned by a group of players, including Shakespeare, that soon became the leading playing company in London.Шаблон:Sfn After the death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603, the company was awarded a royal patent by the new King James I, and changed its name to the King's Men.Шаблон:Sfn

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In 1599, a partnership of members of the company built their own theatre on the south bank of the River Thames, which they named the Globe. In 1608, the partnership also took over the Blackfriars indoor theatre. Extant records of Shakespeare's property purchases and investments indicate that his association with the company made him a wealthy man,Шаблон:Sfn and in 1597, he bought the second-largest house in Stratford, New Place, and in 1605, invested in a share of the parish tithes in Stratford.Шаблон:Sfn

Some of Shakespeare's plays were published in quarto editions, beginning in 1594, and by 1598, his name had become a selling point and began to appear on the title pages.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn Shakespeare continued to act in his own and other plays after his success as a playwright. The 1616 edition of Ben Jonson's Works names him on the cast lists for Every Man in His Humour (1598) and Sejanus His Fall (1603).Шаблон:Sfn The absence of his name from the 1605 cast list for Jonson's Volpone is taken by some scholars as a sign that his acting career was nearing its end.Шаблон:Sfn The First Folio of 1623, however, lists Shakespeare as one of "the Principal Actors in all these Plays", some of which were first staged after Volpone, although we cannot know for certain which roles he played.Шаблон:Sfn In 1610, John Davies of Hereford wrote that "good Will" played "kingly" roles.Шаблон:Sfn In 1709, Rowe passed down a tradition that Shakespeare played the ghost of Hamlet's father.Шаблон:Sfn Later traditions maintain that he also played Adam in As You Like It, and the Chorus in Henry V,Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn though scholars doubt the sources of that information.Шаблон:Sfn

Throughout his career, Shakespeare divided his time between London and Stratford. In 1596, the year before he bought New Place as his family home in Stratford, Shakespeare was living in the parish of St. Helen's, Bishopsgate, north of the River Thames.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn He moved across the river to Southwark by 1599, the same year his company constructed the Globe Theatre there.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn By 1604, he had moved north of the river again, to an area north of St Paul's Cathedral with many fine houses. There, he rented rooms from a French Huguenot named Christopher Mountjoy, a maker of ladies' wigs and other headgear.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn

Later years and death

Shakespeare's funerary monument in Stratford-upon-Avon

Rowe was the first biographer to record the tradition, repeated by Johnson, that Shakespeare retired to Stratford "some years before his death".Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn He was still working as an actor in London in 1608; in an answer to the sharers' petition in 1635, Cuthbert Burbage stated that after purchasing the lease of the Blackfriars Theatre in 1608 from Henry Evans, the King's Men "placed men players" there, "which were Heminges, Condell, Shakespeare, etc.".Шаблон:Sfn However, it is perhaps relevant that the bubonic plague raged in London throughout 1609.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn The London public playhouses were repeatedly closed during extended outbreaks of the plague (a total of over 60 months closure between May 1603 and February 1610),Шаблон:Sfn which meant there was often no acting work. Retirement from all work was uncommon at that time.Шаблон:Sfn Shakespeare continued to visit London during the years 1611–1614.Шаблон:Sfn In 1612, he was called as a witness in Bellott v. Mountjoy, a court case concerning the marriage settlement of Mountjoy's daughter, Mary.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn In March 1613, he bought a gatehouse in the former Blackfriars priory;Шаблон:Sfn and from November 1614, he was in London for several weeks with his son-in-law, John Hall.Шаблон:Sfn After 1610, Shakespeare wrote fewer plays, and none are attributed to him after 1613.Шаблон:Sfn His last three plays were collaborations, probably with John Fletcher,Шаблон:Sfn who succeeded him as the house playwright of the King's Men.Шаблон:Sfn

Shakespeare died on 23 April 1616, at the age of 52.Шаблон:Efn He died within a month of signing his will, a document which he begins by describing himself as being in "perfect health". No extant contemporary source explains how or why he died. Half a century later, John Ward, the vicar of Stratford, wrote in his notebook: "Shakespeare, Drayton, and Ben Jonson had a merry meeting and, it seems, drank too hard, for Shakespeare died of a fever there contracted",Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn not an impossible scenario since Shakespeare knew Jonson and Drayton. Of the tributes from fellow authors, one refers to his relatively sudden death: "We wondered, Shakespeare, that thou went'st so soon / From the world's stage to the grave's tiring room."Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Efn

Holy Trinity Church, Stratford-upon-Avon, where Shakespeare was baptised and is buried

He was survived by his wife and two daughters. Susanna had married a physician, John Hall, in 1607,Шаблон:Sfn and Judith had married Thomas Quiney, a vintner, two months before Shakespeare's death.Шаблон:Sfn Shakespeare signed his last will and testament on 25 March 1616; the following day, his new son-in-law, Thomas Quiney was found guilty of fathering an illegitimate son by Margaret Wheeler, who had died during childbirth. Thomas was ordered by the church court to do public penance, which would have caused much shame and embarrassment for the Shakespeare family.Шаблон:Sfn

Shakespeare bequeathed the bulk of his large estate to his elder daughter SusannaШаблон:Sfn under stipulations that she pass it down intact to "the first son of her body".Шаблон:Sfn The Quineys had three children, all of whom died without marrying.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn The Halls had one child, Elizabeth, who married twice but died without children in 1670, ending Shakespeare's direct line.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn Shakespeare's will scarcely mentions his wife, Anne, who was probably entitled to one-third of his estate automatically.Шаблон:Efn He did make a point, however, of leaving her "my second best bed", a bequest that has led to much speculation.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn Some scholars see the bequest as an insult to Anne, whereas others believe that the second-best bed would have been the matrimonial bed and therefore rich in significance.Шаблон:Sfn

Shakespeare's grave, next to those of Anne Shakespeare, his wife, and Thomas Nash, the husband of his granddaughter

Shakespeare was buried in the chancel of the Holy Trinity Church two days after his death.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn The epitaph carved into the stone slab covering his grave includes a curse against moving his bones, which was carefully avoided during restoration of the church in 2008:Шаблон:Sfn

<poem>Good frend for Iesvs sake forbeare, To digg the dvst encloased heare. Bleste be Middle English the.svg man Middle English that.svg spares thes stones, And cvrst be he Middle English that.svg moves my bones.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Efn </poem> (Modern spelling: Good friend, for Jesus' sake forbear, / To dig the dust enclosed here. / Blessed be the man that spares these stones, / And cursed be he that moves my bones.)

Some time before 1623, a funerary monument was erected in his memory on the north wall, with a half-effigy of him in the act of writing. Its plaque compares him to Nestor, Socrates, and Virgil.Шаблон:Sfn In 1623, in conjunction with the publication of the First Folio, the Droeshout engraving was published.Шаблон:Sfn

Shakespeare has been commemorated in many statues and memorials around the world, including funeral monuments in Southwark Cathedral and Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn

Plays

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Procession of Characters from Shakespeare's Plays by an unknown 19th-century artist

Most playwrights of the period typically collaborated with others at some point, and critics agree that Shakespeare did the same, mostly early and late in his career.Шаблон:Sfn Some attributions, such as Titus Andronicus and the early history plays, remain controversial while The Two Noble Kinsmen and the lost Cardenio have well-attested contemporary documentation. Textual evidence also supports the view that several of the plays were revised by other writers after their original composition.

The first recorded works of Shakespeare are Richard III and the three parts of Henry VI, written in the early 1590s during a vogue for historical drama. Shakespeare's plays are difficult to date precisely, however,Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn and studies of the texts suggest that Titus Andronicus, The Comedy of Errors, The Taming of the Shrew, and The Two Gentlemen of Verona may also belong to Shakespeare's earliest period.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn His first histories, which draw heavily on the 1587 edition of Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland,Шаблон:Sfn dramatise the destructive results of weak or corrupt rule and have been interpreted as a justification for the origins of the Tudor dynasty.Шаблон:Sfn The early plays were influenced by the works of other Elizabethan dramatists, especially Thomas Kyd and Christopher Marlowe, by the traditions of medieval drama, and by the plays of Seneca.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn The Comedy of Errors was also based on classical models, but no source for The Taming of the Shrew has been found, though it is related to a separate play of the same name and may have derived from a folk story.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn Like The Two Gentlemen of Verona, in which two friends appear to approve of rape,Шаблон:SfnШаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn the Shrew's story of the taming of a woman's independent spirit by a man sometimes troubles modern critics, directors, and audiences.Шаблон:Sfn

Oberon, Titania and Puck with Fairies Dancing. By William Blake, c. 1786. Tate Britain.

Shakespeare's early classical and Italianate comedies, containing tight double plots and precise comic sequences, give way in the mid-1590s to the romantic atmosphere of his most acclaimed comedies.Шаблон:Sfn A Midsummer Night's Dream is a witty mixture of romance, fairy magic, and comic lowlife scenes.Шаблон:Sfn Shakespeare's next comedy, the equally romantic Merchant of Venice, contains a portrayal of the vengeful Jewish moneylender Shylock, which reflects Elizabethan views but may appear derogatory to modern audiences.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn The wit and wordplay of Much Ado About Nothing,Шаблон:Sfn the charming rural setting of As You Like It, and the lively merrymaking of Twelfth Night complete Shakespeare's sequence of great comedies.Шаблон:Sfn After the lyrical Richard II, written almost entirely in verse, Shakespeare introduced prose comedy into the histories of the late 1590s, Henry IV, parts 1 and 2, and Henry V. His characters become more complex and tender as he switches deftly between comic and serious scenes, prose and poetry, and achieves the narrative variety of his mature work.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn This period begins and ends with two tragedies: Romeo and Juliet, the famous romantic tragedy of sexually charged adolescence, love, and death;Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn and Julius Caesar—based on Sir Thomas North's 1579 translation of Plutarch's Parallel Lives—which introduced a new kind of drama.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn According to Shakespearean scholar James Shapiro, in Julius Caesar, "the various strands of politics, character, inwardness, contemporary events, even Shakespeare's own reflections on the act of writing, began to infuse each other".Шаблон:Sfn

Hamlet, Horatio, Marcellus, and the Ghost of Hamlet's Father. Henry Fuseli, 1780–1785. Kunsthaus Zürich.

In the early 17th century, Shakespeare wrote the so-called "problem plays" Measure for Measure, Troilus and Cressida, and All's Well That Ends Well and a number of his best known tragedies.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn Many critics believe that Shakespeare's greatest tragedies represent the peak of his art. The titular hero of one of Shakespeare's greatest tragedies, Hamlet, has probably been discussed more than any other Shakespearean character, especially for his famous soliloquy which begins "To be or not to be; that is the question".Шаблон:Sfn Unlike the introverted Hamlet, whose fatal flaw is hesitation, the heroes of the tragedies that followed, Othello and King Lear, are undone by hasty errors of judgement.Шаблон:Sfn The plots of Shakespeare's tragedies often hinge on such fatal errors or flaws, which overturn order and destroy the hero and those he loves.Шаблон:Sfn In Othello, the villain Iago stokes Othello's sexual jealousy to the point where he murders the innocent wife who loves him.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn In King Lear, the old king commits the tragic error of giving up his powers, initiating the events which lead to the torture and blinding of the Earl of Gloucester and the murder of Lear's youngest daughter Cordelia. According to the critic Frank Kermode, "the play offers neither its good characters nor its audience any relief from its cruelty".Шаблон:SfnШаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn In Macbeth, the shortest and most compressed of Shakespeare's tragedies,Шаблон:Sfn uncontrollable ambition incites Macbeth and his wife, Lady Macbeth, to murder the rightful king and usurp the throne until their own guilt destroys them in turn.Шаблон:Sfn In this play, Shakespeare adds a supernatural element to the tragic structure. His last major tragedies, Antony and Cleopatra and Coriolanus, contain some of Shakespeare's finest poetry and were considered his most successful tragedies by the poet and critic T. S. Eliot.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn

In his final period, Shakespeare turned to romance or tragicomedy and completed three more major plays: Cymbeline, The Winter's Tale, and The Tempest, as well as the collaboration, Pericles, Prince of Tyre. Less bleak than the tragedies, these four plays are graver in tone than the comedies of the 1590s, but they end with reconciliation and the forgiveness of potentially tragic errors.Шаблон:Sfn Some commentators have seen this change in mood as evidence of a more serene view of life on Shakespeare's part, but it may merely reflect the theatrical fashion of the day.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn Shakespeare collaborated on two further surviving plays, Henry VIII and The Two Noble Kinsmen, probably with John Fletcher.Шаблон:Sfn

Performances

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It is not clear for which companies Shakespeare wrote his early plays. The title page of the 1594 edition of Titus Andronicus reveals that the play had been acted by three different troupes.Шаблон:Sfn After the plagues of 1592–3, Shakespeare's plays were performed by his own company at The Theatre and the Curtain in Shoreditch, north of the Thames.Шаблон:Sfn Londoners flocked there to see the first part of Henry IV, Leonard Digges recording, "Let but Falstaff come, Hal, Poins, the rest ... and you scarce shall have a room".Шаблон:Sfn When the company found themselves in dispute with their landlord, they pulled The Theatre down and used the timbers to construct the Globe Theatre, the first playhouse built by actors for actors, on the south bank of the Thames at Southwark.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn The Globe opened in autumn 1599, with Julius Caesar one of the first plays staged. Most of Shakespeare's greatest post-1599 plays were written for the Globe, including Hamlet, Othello, and King Lear.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn

The reconstructed Globe Theatre, London

After the Lord Chamberlain's Men were renamed the King's Men in 1603, they entered a special relationship with the new King James. Although the performance records are patchy, the King's Men performed seven of Shakespeare's plays at court between 1 November 1604, and 31 October 1605, including two performances of The Merchant of Venice.Шаблон:Sfn After 1608, they performed at the indoor Blackfriars Theatre during the winter and the Globe during the summer.Шаблон:Sfn The indoor setting, combined with the Jacobean fashion for lavishly staged masques, allowed Shakespeare to introduce more elaborate stage devices. In Cymbeline, for example, Jupiter descends "in thunder and lightning, sitting upon an eagle: he throws a thunderbolt. The ghosts fall on their knees."Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn

The actors in Shakespeare's company included the famous Richard Burbage, William Kempe, Henry Condell and John Heminges. Burbage played the leading role in the first performances of many of Shakespeare's plays, including Richard III, Hamlet, Othello, and King Lear.Шаблон:Sfn The popular comic actor Will Kempe played the servant Peter in Romeo and Juliet and Dogberry in Much Ado About Nothing, among other characters.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn He was replaced around 1600 by Robert Armin, who played roles such as Touchstone in As You Like It and the fool in King Lear.Шаблон:Sfn In 1613, Sir Henry Wotton recorded that Henry VIII "was set forth with many extraordinary circumstances of pomp and ceremony".Шаблон:Sfn On 29 June, however, a cannon set fire to the thatch of the Globe and burned the theatre to the ground, an event which pinpoints the date of a Shakespeare play with rare precision.Шаблон:Sfn

Textual sources

Title page of the First Folio, 1623. Copper engraving of Shakespeare by Martin Droeshout.

In 1623, John Heminges and Henry Condell, two of Shakespeare's friends from the King's Men, published the First Folio, a collected edition of Shakespeare's plays. It contained 36 texts, including 18 printed for the first time.Шаблон:Sfn Many of the plays had already appeared in quarto versions—flimsy books made from sheets of paper folded twice to make four leaves.Шаблон:Sfn No evidence suggests that Shakespeare approved these editions, which the First Folio describes as "stol'n and surreptitious copies".Шаблон:Sfn Nor did Shakespeare plan or expect his works to survive in any form at all; those works likely would have faded into oblivion but for his friends' spontaneous idea, after his death, to create and publish the First Folio.Шаблон:Sfn

Alfred Pollard termed some of the pre-1623 versions as "bad quartos" because of their adapted, paraphrased or garbled texts, which may in places have been reconstructed from memory.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn Where several versions of a play survive, each differs from the other. The differences may stem from copying or printing errors, from notes by actors or audience members, or from Shakespeare's own papers.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn In some cases, for example, Hamlet, Troilus and Cressida, and Othello, Shakespeare could have revised the texts between the quarto and folio editions. In the case of King Lear, however, while most modern editions do conflate them, the 1623 folio version is so different from the 1608 quarto that the Oxford Shakespeare prints them both, arguing that they cannot be conflated without confusion.Шаблон:Sfn

Poems

In 1593 and 1594, when the theatres were closed because of plague, Shakespeare published two narrative poems on sexual themes, Venus and Adonis and The Rape of Lucrece. He dedicated them to Henry Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton. In Venus and Adonis, an innocent Adonis rejects the sexual advances of Venus; while in The Rape of Lucrece, the virtuous wife Lucrece is raped by the lustful Tarquin.Шаблон:Sfn Influenced by Ovid's Metamorphoses,Шаблон:Sfn the poems show the guilt and moral confusion that result from uncontrolled lust.Шаблон:Sfn Both proved popular and were often reprinted during Shakespeare's lifetime. A third narrative poem, A Lover's Complaint, in which a young woman laments her seduction by a persuasive suitor, was printed in the first edition of the Sonnets in 1609. Most scholars now accept that Shakespeare wrote A Lover's Complaint. Critics consider that its fine qualities are marred by leaden effects.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn The Phoenix and the Turtle, printed in Robert Chester's 1601 Love's Martyr, mourns the deaths of the legendary phoenix and his lover, the faithful turtle dove. In 1599, two early drafts of sonnets 138 and 144 appeared in The Passionate Pilgrim, published under Shakespeare's name but without his permission.Шаблон:SfnШаблон:SfnШаблон:Sfn

Sonnets

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Title page from 1609 edition of Shake-Speares Sonnets